Glossary

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A Level TRS

British Columbia’s ‘A’ level ambient odour objective is two parts per billion average or less over a 24-hour day. Percentage compliance with this objective is a measure of the percentage of days in the year during which the daily average was at or below two parts per billion.

Ambient PM2.5

A measure of ambient levels of fine particulates of less than or equal to 2.5 microns. British Columbia’s PM2.5 objective is 25 micrograms per cubic metre (24-hour average).

Ambient PM10

A measure of ambient levels of fine particulate of less than or equal to 10 microns. British Columbia’s PM10 objective is 50 micrograms per cubic metre (24-hour average).

Adsorbable Organic Halide (AOX)

A measure of the amount of chlorine bound to an organic substance; occurs in kraft bleaching process.

 

Basis weight

The weight of a standard amount of paper cut to a standard size; measured in grams per square metre or pounds.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

A measure of the amount of oxygen used during biodegradation of effluents over a five-day period.

Biomass fuel

Renewable energy source derived from bark, wood shavings, sawdust (hog fuel), effluent treatment sludges, and black liquor. Biomass is carbon-neutral – burning it releases the same amount of carbon dioxide as was originally sequestered during the growth of the vegetation.

Brightening

Adding optical brighteners to stock to make pulp/paper appear whiter.

Brightness

A measure of the whiteness of pulp and paper.

 

Calender

Pressing paper between rollers to make it smooth and glossy. Most calenders add gloss, while some create a dull or matte finish.

Calendered paper

Paper smoothed and compacted by calender rolls.

Caliper

Thickness of paper, usually measured in nanometers.

Capacity

The number of units that can be produced in a year based on operating with the normal number of shifts and maintenance interruptions.

Carbon Dioxide Equivalency / CO2e

Effective greenhouse gas emissions expressed as equivalent tonnes of carbon dioxide. Some greenhouse gases have a stronger warming effect than others; the CO2e measure provides an appropriate comparison of the warming effects of every greenhouse gas.

Carbon Disclosure Project

An international coalition of institutional investors that makes annual carbon-related disclosure requests to corporations, and then issues national and regional reports.

Carbon offset

An emissions reduction credit relating to another organization’s project that results in less greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than would otherwise occur.

Certification

Voluntary process providing objective evidence that forests harvested to manufacture wood and paper products are responsibly managed; independent, third-party experts verify a company's performance against objectives and standards.

Chain of custody

The process of tracking materials used within a manufacturing facility so that the source of raw materials used to make specific end products can be identified. Commonly applied in the context of use of certified fibre supplies.

Clarifier

A tank in which effluents are held to allow solids to settle out. Forms part of an effluent treatment system.

Coated paper

The uniform application of a coating yields a more even and closed surface on printing papers, making them suitable for reproducing fine screen artwork. Coating may be applied by separate coaters or on the paper machine.

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Dioxins and furans

Specific chlorine-containing compounds that have been detected in trace amounts in pulp and paper facility emissions. 2378TCDD and 2378TCDF denote specific dioxin and furan substances. A non-detection result is noted as n/d.

Directory paper

Lightweight, uncoated mechanical paper suitable for printing telephone and commerical directory books.

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Effluent

Outflowing waste discharge for a pulp and paper mill.

Emissions Factor

An estimate of the amount of a specific emission or other discharge over a defined period of time and associated with a particular process or piece of equipment. It is typically defined in terms of volumes of inputs (such as raw materials or fuels) into the process in question.

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Fibre

Any of various wood-based raw materials used in the production of pulp and paper including wood chips and other sawmilling residuals or waste products, and pulp logs (logs of insufficient quality for use as lumber).

Filler

Pigment added to papermaking stock to reduce cost and improve properties such as opacity and smoothness.

Fine paper

High-quality printing, writing or copy paper produced from chemical pulp and usually containing less than 10% mechanical pulp.

First Nation

A term used to designate aboriginal groups in Canada. First Nations comprise one of the three aboriginal peoples of Canada, the other two being the Inuit and Métis.

Fossil fuel

Hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Fully bleached pulp

Pulp bleached to the highest brightness attainable (>90 ISO).

Furnish

A blend of different types of pulps and additives used to manufacture paper.

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Grammage

Weight in grams of one square metre of paper or board; also basis weight.

Gravure paper

Mostly mechanical, highly calendered (smoothed) paper that is produced as coated or uncoated grades. It must ensure uniform ink trapping at high printing speeds. In order to accept the ink from the deep etched or engraved ink cells of the gravure cylinders, gravure paper must have a certain degree of softness and suppleness. Applications include magazines and reviews, mail-order and travel catalogues, brochures and inserts with high print runs.

Greenhouse Gases (GHG)

Gases that prevent heat from radiating out into space, causing an increase in global temperatures. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas produced mostly from combustion of fossil fuels.

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Hi-brite or high-brightness paper

A group of uncoated groundwood papers with brightness levels greater than standard newsprint.

Hog fuel

A mixture of bark and other wood waste usually produced by sawmills; burned to produce energy and steam.

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Indirect Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse gas emissions relating to an industrial process but not directly generated by it. Measurement of such emissions, as per the World Resources Institute’s Scope 2 definition, is commonly limited to those associated with purchased energy.

Intensity

A measure of an output or other aspect of performance relative to some other variable. Carbon produced per tonne of production, in contrast to an absolute measure of total carbon produced, is an intensity measure.

ISO 14001, 9001

International standards outlining elements of management systems pertaining to environmental practices and product quality, respectively. Demonstrable adherence to these standards results in ISO registration.

ISO brightness

The brightness of paper and board measured at a wavelength of 457 nanometres under standard conditions.

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Kraft (or chemical) pulping

A chemical process by which wood chips are broken down and converted into pulp for use in the manufacture of products such as containerboard (used in packaging materials) and paper.

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Leachate

Water that has been in contact with waste materials.

Lightweight coating

Coating applied at 7-10 g/m2 on one or both sides of the paper.

Lightweight printing paper

Lightweight paper has a low grammage and is made from rags and bleached kraft pulp and is used for advertising material (catalogues, leaflets, mailings etc.), commercial and/or jobbing work (magazines, brochures, instruction leaflets, forms etc.).

Lightweight coated (LWC) paper

Lightweight, two-side coated mechanical reel printing paper with a grammage of less than 72 g. It is used for magazines, mail-order catalogues etc. that are mostly produced in gravure or web offset printing.

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Magazine paper

The selection of magazine printing paper mainly depends on the print run and demands on the print quality (image reproduction, outer appearance, advertising appeal). High runs are mostly produced in rotogravure, rotary offset printing or rotary letterpress printing on uncoated or coated reel printing papers (mainly SC and LWC). Magazines with medium or smaller circulation are generally produced in sheet-fed offset or sheet-fed letterpress printing.

Manufactured carbon-neutral

Products manufactured with no net increase of carbon to the atmosphere – as measured by direct GHG emissions – as a result of low-carbon production processes and the purchase of carbon offsets.

Mechanical printing paper

Paper made primarily from pulp whose fibres were separated by mechanical rather than chemical means, in addition to varying proportions of kraft pulp (also referred to as “groundwood paper”).

Mechanical pulping

A mechanical process by which wood chips are broken down and converted into pulp for use in the manufacture of products such as newsprint and other papers (also referred to as “groundwood pulping”).

MF

Machine finished. Smooth paper calendered on the paper machine.

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Newsprint

Newsprint is a highly mechanical, machine-finished or calendered rotary printing paper (40-56g) mainly made from mechanical and waste paper pulps. Used mainly for newspapers, the demands on newsprint in terms of optical properties or printability are lower than those on others, such as coated printing papers. Newsprint must have very good runnability: today's printing techniques require paper with a good tear strength to ensure uninterrupted production on high-speed rotary presses.

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Offset paper

Collective term for printing papers with special properties for offset printing. For instance, the paper must not emit dust during processing and must be pick resistant. Offset paper may be woodfree or mechanical, coated (matte, glossy, embossed) or uncoated and is processed in sheets as well as in reels.

On-machine coating

Coating paper on the paper machine.

Optical characteristics

Characteristics of the appearance of paper or board. Most important are colour, brightness, opacity and gloss.

Ozone-depleting substance

Chemicals that react with ozone molecules in the atmosphere to destroy them.

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Particulate matter

Small particles originating from stack emissions or other sources such as chip piles.

Peroxide bleaching

Method of bleaching pulp with hydrogen peroxide to remove lignin; reduces or avoids the need for chlorine dioxide in final bleaching.

Power boiler

Equipment in which renewable biomass from sawmills and/or fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity and steam for mill operations.

Power boiler dioxins

Low levels of chlorinated compounds absorbed into combusted wood ash that originate from sea salt contained in the waste bark fuel. Power boiler dioxins are expressed as dioxin equivalent units (TEQ).

Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)

A filler used in paper production to improve paper properties, including brightness, opacity and bulk.

Printability

Describes how smoothly paper runs in a printing press and the quality of the printed image.

Printing paper

Collective term for all printable mechanical or woodfree papers. In addition to uniform and fast ink trapping and drying (printability) as well as dimensional stability, sufficient opacity (no show through) and smoothness, such papers require a certain degree of strength and stiffness so the paper can run through the press quickly and without any problems (runnability). Many printing papers are coated to improve printability.

Pulp

Generic term describing fibre derived from wood by cooking, refining or grinding it, or from waste paper by processing and cleaning it. Varieties include:

  • Bleached pulp - Pulp with natural brightness improved using chemicals
  • Chemical pulp - Pulp in which wood fibres have been separated by chemical, rather than mechanical, means
  • De-inked pulp (DIP) - Paper pulp produced by de-inking recovered paper
  • Kraft pulp - Chemical wood pulp produced by digesting wood through the sulphate process
  • Market pulp - Pulp produced for sale on the market rather than internal use
  • NBSK (Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft) - One of the chief varieties of market pulp, produced mainly from spruce trees from Scandinavia, Canada and the northeast US
  • Thermomechanical Pulp – Pulp produced from wood chips using heated mechanical processes to break the bonds between the wood fibres

Pulp logs

Logs unsuitable for manufacturing timber because they are too small, too knotty, too twisted or contain rot.

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Recovery boiler

Burns byproducts of the chemical pulping process to produce energy and steam and recycles pulping liquors for reuse.

Recycling

Using recovered waste paper to produce new paper products.

Reportable events

Events that are required to be reported to regulatory authorities. They most commonly consist of unintentional releases of materials into the environment that are reportable due to considerations relating to the type or volume of materials released, or the nature of the receiving environment.

Runnability

How smoothly paper runs through a paper machine or printing press.

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SC paper

SC stands for supercalendered. This is a calendered, uncoated mechanical paper with fillers.

SO2

A gas made up of oxygen and sulphur that forms an acid when exposed to water. SO2 can be an ingredient of acid rain formation.

Soft calendering (SNC)

Soft calenders are made more compact than other calenders and smooth paper by passing them between steel and hard rubber rolls. The method permits a wide variety of finishes between gloss and matte and allows bulk to be retained.

Speciality paper

A term encompassing numerous paper grades, each characterized by particular properties that often require special raw materials.

Strength

Ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stress.

Supercalendered (SC)

Paper treated in a supercalender, usually separate from the paper machine; uncoated magazine paper.

Supercalendering

Treating paper on an off-machine supercalender to improve smoothness and gloss.

Supplementary fuels

Fuels such as natural gas or oil that are added to the waste wood burned in power boilers to improve combustion.

Surface treatment

Treating the surface of paper or board with size or coating colour.

Surface-sized paper

Paper that has been sized on the surface, generally using a size press inside the paper machine.

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Tire-derived fuel (TDF)

Supplemental fuel made by chipping old tires.

Tonne

Metric ton - 1,000 kilograms or 2,204 pounds (1.1023 tons).

Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS) Gases

Gasses with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs or cabbage that are emitted from kraft pulp mill operations and effluent treatment systems.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

Filterable solids remaining in treated mill water.

Toxicity

A measure of the degree to which something is toxic – i.e. capable of causing injury or death.

Trout toxicity

A test that exposes juvenile rainbow trout to liquid substances for 96 hours. A substance is considered non-toxic if less than 50 per cent of the exposed fish die.

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Uncoated specialty paper

Uncoated printing papers, with mechanical pulp as their major component, which differ from newsprint in brightness and surface characteristics and are used for magazines, catalogues, supplements, inserts and flyers.

United Nations Global Compact

A voluntary initiative through which corporations commit to align their operations and strategies with 10 principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment.

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Virgin fibre

Wood fibre never before used to make pulp, paper or board. Also known as primary fibre.

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Waste paper

Paper after it has been used. Most can be recycled into new paper products. Also known as recovered paper and secondary fibre.

Winder

Machine for cutting the paper web longitudinally into narrower webs, which are then wound to reels; also slitter-winder.

Woodfree paper

Paper made primarily from pulp whose fibres were separated by chemical rather than mechanical means, may contain a maximum of 5% mechanical pulp by mass.

Wood waste

Tree bark, poor quality wood chips, sawdust and other clean wood-based waste products that cannot be converted into solid wood products or pulp and paper products; used as fuel to generate steam and electricity.

Writing paper

Uncoated paper suitable for writing with ink on both sides. The writing must neither bleed nor strike through. Writing paper is always fully sized and also suitable for printing. It can be woodfree or mechanical, depending on the intended purpose. The admixture of fillers makes it less translucent.

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